Spirituality and Mental Well-Being in Islam

Mental and spiritual well-being is paramount in Islam. When we are unhealthy, we cannot fulfil our dual responsibilities of serving Allah and acting as His trustees on Earth. Therefore, holistic self-care which includes understanding human nature from an Islamic perspective is extremely important.
by Dr. Muhammad Mubarak Habib Mohamed 2024-05-31 • 40 min read
His PhD is in Islamic Civilisation and Contemporary Issues from the University of Brunei Darussalam. Dr Mubarak holds a Master of Arts degree in Islamic Spiritual Culture and Contemporary Society from the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilisation (ISTAC). He also has a Master of Education degree specialising in curriculum and teaching from the National Institute of Education (NIE) Singapore. In addition, he holds a postgraduate diploma in Islamic Psychology from Cambridge Muslim College, a postgraduate diploma in Education and an In-service Diploma in Physics from NIE. He has been a Physics and Mathematics educator for two decades. Dr Mubarak research and interest cover the area of classical Islamic Intellectual Thoughts with the eye towards solving contemporary issues facing humanity.
2024-05-31 • 40 min read

                  Introduction to The Significance of Health and Well-Being in Islam

Allah s.w.t. says in the Quran,

وَإِذَا مَرِضْتُ فَهُوَ يَشْفِينِ

“And when I am ill, it is He who cures me”

(Surah Ash-Shu’ara’, 26:80)

Our beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. said,

تَدَاوَوْا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سُبْحَانَهُ لَمْ يَضَعْ دَاءً إِلاَّ وَضَعَ مَعَهُ شِفَاءً إِلاَّ الْهَرَمَ

“Seek treatments O servants of Allah! For Allah does not create any disease, but He also creates it with the cure except for old age.”

(Sunan Ibn Majah)

Health in Islam is of the utmost importance. A healthy body enables a Muslim to perform both his or her Divinely-ordained responsibilities, as an ‘abd (servant) and khalifah (trustee) of Allah, to the best of their abilities. It starts with the selection of halal (permissible) and tayyib (nutritional and balanced) food taken in reasonable quantities over periods of time.1

This leads to a healthy body, with healthy emotions, psyche and a spiritual human being who contributes positively to his or her community and society. The branch of knowledge that deals with health and diseases within the Islamic Intellectual tradition is Islamic medical science. This category of knowledge has been defined as a “branch of knowledge which deals with the states of health and disease in the human body, with the purpose of employing suitable means for preserving health”2.

Sultan Bayezid II Complex: Hospital & School of Medicine, Edirne, Turkiye, (b. 1488). This complex consists of various facilities, including a Mosque, offices and a food storage area, but the most distinct and significant functions are the hospital and a College of Medicine practising Islamic medical sciences. Now it has been preserved and converted into a museum.Sultan Bayezid II Complex: Hospital & School of Medicine, Edirne, Turkiye, (b. 1488). This complex consists of various facilities, including a Mosque, offices and a food storage area, but the most distinct and significant functions are the hospital and a College of Medicine practising Islamic medical sciences. Now it has been preserved and converted into a museum.

The default state of the human being is being healthy with occasional instances of illnesses that the human constituents go into disequilibrium. The role of physicians or doctors or any kind of medical practitioner within the Islamic medicinal system is to restore the “equilibrium across all components of the human psyche [behavioural inclinations (nafs), cognition (‘aql), spirit (ruh) and emotional expressions of the primary components (ihsas)3 that lead to an integrative whole or unity of being that is accompanied by a healthy heart (qalb salim)”4. They are to employ suitable means for the preservation of that normal state of health or for its restoration in cases where the person has been afflicted with a disease or an illness.

Spiritual and mental health in Islam must be understood within this holistic system of maintaining harmony, balance and equilibrium of the human psyche or its restoration when the body or any parts of the human constitutions have been afflicted with illness or disease. This particular branch of knowledge within the medicinal system in Islam is given the name of ‘ilm al-nafs loosely translated and understood now as Islamic psychology.

Brief Historical Origins and Contributions in ‘Ilm Al-Nafs (Islamic Psychology)

The field of ‘ilm al-nafs focuses on the self. It studies the fundamental constitutions of the human beings, their respective functions, their interactions with one another, the diseases that can be inflicted upon them, the methods of prevention from sickness and the maintenance of holistic well-being of these respective constitutions.

Read: What is Mental health and Well-Being in Islam?

This area of study is developed by drawing from the two revelatory sources, which are the Quran and the Hadith (traditions of the Prophet). These were supplemented with empirical, rational and observational sources with thorough literature reviews from other civilisations like the Greek and the Hindu civilisations.

The domain of ‘ilm al-nafs is a multidisciplinary field involving philosophy, theology, law, Sufism and medicinal sciences. Within these various disciplines, a divergence of ideas merged based upon the various emphasis that each intellectual school focused on and their varying permutations on the complementing roles of revelatory sources with empirical, observational, rational and historical data.

Read: Al-Kindi and Islamic Philosophy

A section in the Health Museum of Sultan Bayezid II Complex (b. 1488) displaying the inclusion of Music Therapy in classical Muslim hospitals. A prominent figure in promoting music-medicinal practices is Al-Farabi, who wrote a treatise on the subject, Kitab al-Musiqa al-Kabir (Grand Book of Music), which became a basis for the practices in traditional Muslim communities and early modern Europe. A section in the Health Museum of Sultan Bayezid II Complex (b. 1488) displaying the inclusion of Music Therapy in classical Muslim hospitals. A prominent figure in promoting music-medicinal practices is Al-Farabi, who wrote a treatise on the subject, Kitab al-Musiqa al-Kabir (Grand Book of Music), which became a basis for the practices in traditional Muslim communities and early modern Europe.

In a nutshell, what inspired our classical Muslim scholars to pursue this multifaceted field of inquiry can be attributed to religious motivations, inspiration for the pursuit of knowledge in general and socio-political factors.5 Simply put, we could say that Islam enabled our classical Muslim scholars to benefit from wisdom that existed within the other civilisations in the field of ‘ilm al-nafs through their submission towards the Islamic revelations as the guide that contours their various ideas in the quest to know the self in order to arrive to The One. As how Al-Miskawayh said in his book Tahdhib al-Ahklaq (The Refinement of Character);

Our purpose in writing this book is to equip ourselves with manners that lead to the most beautiful actions… and the path to this is to first know our self; what it is and what it is of, what completes it, what it desires, what strengthens I and what limits it. For God says, ‘By the soul and the One who fashioned it, then with knowledge of right and wrong inspired it, successful indeed is the one who purifies their soul and failed indeed is the one who corrupts it’”.6

We will select some of the ideas developed within the various intellectual schools in the Islamic tradition as surveying the vast intellectual heritage in this subject matter is not possible in this article.

Pioneer Muslim Scholars on Islamic Psychology

Within the Islamic framework of Psychology, understanding human nature from the Islamic perspective is an absolute necessity to the trajectory of the study. Thus, much focus is placed on recognising the human psyche or 'soul' as conceptualised by Muslim scholars according to the Quranic narrative to make sense of human behaviour and motivation.7

To understand the soul or self better, Al-Ghazali (d. 1111 CE) categorised it into different dimensions to elaborate its various functions and objectives: qalb (heart), ruh (spirit), nafs (inclinations-desires), and ‘aql (intellect-reason)8.

As you will see in this article, other classical Muslim scholars have also developed different models to conceptualise the human psyche, emphasising the significance of the study for achieving overall well-being, the cultivation of virtues, purification of the soul and a good life.

For instance, Al-Farabi (d. 950 CE) classified the soul into three fundamental powers or functions (quwwah):

  1. the vegetative power responsible for growth and nutrition,
  2. the animal power responsible for movement and sensation,
  3. and the rational power responsible for intellectual activities.

He emphasised the importance of the third – ‘rational power’ is responsible for intellectual activities, which must be refined to achieve intellectual virtues for the perfection of the soul. This will then lead to the highest form of human happiness that is capable of contemplating and experiencing Divine light.

Ibn Sina (d. 1037 CE) expanded Al-Farabi’s classifications and introduced the idea of self-awareness in his ‘floating man’ thought experiment. Here, he argues that the soul’s self-consciousness is a fundamental intrinsic character even in the absence of sensory inputs.

Check out these 4 Muslims Who Made Amazing Discoveries During The Islamic Golden Age

Within the theological schools of Islam, scholars like Al-Ghazali went deeper into exploring the concept of the nafs, emphasising its developmental stages from the commanding self (nafs al-ammarah) to the blaming self (nafs al-lawwamah), which is self-critical to the peaceful self (nafs al-muṭma’innah) which is content and at peace with Allah s.w.t.

Read: 4 Advices from Imam Al-Ghazali on worship

He also bridges the gap between formal theology and Sufism, emphasising the importance of inner spiritual development alongside intellectual understanding. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (d. 1209 CE) discussed psychological concepts within the context of tafsir (quranic exegesis) where he analysed human emotions, motivations and the ethical implications of the soul’s actions.

Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 1328 CE) explored the nature of the spirit (ruh) and its relationship with the body (jasad), advocating for a more direct and an experiential understanding grounded in revelatory sources (wahyu). Al-Ghazali, who was also a major figure in the school of Sufism, integrated Sufi practices with mainstream Islamic teachings, emphasising the importance of the purification of the heart and self (nafs) through acts of worship, zikr (remembrance of Allah s.w.t) and moral discipline. He highlighted the inner dimensions of Islamic practices, encouraging Muslims to move beyond mere external observance to attain true spiritual insight and closeness to Allah.

Father and son making zikir and prayer

A notable figure within the school of Islamic physicians was Abu Zayd Al-Balkhi (d. 934 CE). As early as the 10th century, he had shown the connectedness of mental and physical health where he argued that mental illnesses could have physical manifestations and vice versa. Therefore, treating an individual often requires addressing the other. He was a pioneer in distinguishing and classifying mental disorders into psychological illnesses like depression, anxiety and psychosomatic illnesses.9

His contemporary, Abu Bakar Al-Razi (d. 925 CE), emphasised the role of psychological factors in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. He used both empirical and clinical approaches based on observation and experience while documenting numerous case studies. He provided practical insights into the treatment of psychological conditions, and advocated for compassionate and individualised care for patients.

Ibn Sina added to his predecessors the importance of measures to maintain mental health and prevent the onset of mental disorders. He emphasised the importance of healthy living through a balanced diet, regular physical activity, and adequate amount of sleep for mental well-being.  

In summary, the contributions of classical Muslim scholars in this field are wide and deep. Their discussions and contributions came from their skilful use of revelatory sources (wahyu) with philosophical inquiries and supported with clinical and empirical approaches of observation and experimentation.

Each school, from the abovementioned scholars, emphasised the development of an aspect of the human constitution without ignoring the interconnectedness of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual health. The goal of the inquiry and specifically human health is for the cultivation of virtues of ethical living so that the journey back to Allah s.w.t. is a journey that ties in harmoniously with the fitrah of being a human being.

Wellness and Healing in Islam

As humans are complex integrated beings, wellness and healing must address all the various dimensions and their respective intricate relations. Conventional treatments that address mental health lack the interventions that address the various dimensions, especially the spiritual heart of the human being. In turn, this makes the results of conventional treatments and therapies temporary and unable to address many of the root causes of mental and spiritual illness.

What is genuinely needed are mental health approaches and clinical practices and interventions that are “solidly grounded in the epistemological and ontological foundations set out in Islamic theology and various Islamic traditions”10.  

This approach, which scholars call the ‘bottom-up approach’,11 will then enable the development and implementation of clinical modalities into realities that provide holistic treatments not only to Muslims but to the general masses. A major and significant difference between this approach to the conventional mental health practice with Muslim populations, which generally “tends to adopt an otherwise secular paradigm of psychology”, is the a priori Eurocentric assumptions that underpin the vision of the human being.

This foundational assumption affects the formulation of the therapeutic goals where the bottom-up approach hinges upon metaphysical goals that are permanent with the eye of achieving enduring happiness (sa‘adah) in the next life whereas the top-down approach tend to focus only on goals that are short-lived experiences in this temporal world.

Read: The Key To Happiness in Islam

This does not mean that an Islamic framework dismisses the worldly experiences of pain, anxiety and depression, but it places these experiences as part of a longer journey of the human being in their return to the Creator by connecting to their natural disposition (fitrah). Al-‘Attas succinctly explains this when he says,

“Enduring happiness in life refers not to the physical entity in man, not to the animal soul and body of man; nor is it a state of mind, or feeling that undergoes terminal states, nor pleasure nor amusement. It has to do with certainty (yaqin) of the ultimate Truth and fulfilment of action in conformity with that certainty. And certainty is a permanent state of consciousness natural to what is permanent in man and perceived by his spiritual organ of cognition, which is the heart (qalb). It is peace and security and tranquillity of the heart (tuma’ninah); it is knowledge (ma‘rifah) and knowledge is true faith (iman).”12  

What does the above mean when it comes to clinical interventions for mental and spiritual health issues?

Are these theoretical conceptions important for clinical interventions?

Theoretical conceptions are important prior to implementing interventions.13 There have also been significant developments in this area for the last decade as we see more clinical-based literatures published demonstrating evidence-based interventions that use bottom-up frameworks in the area of mental and spiritual health.14

There are also training courses that bring a particular bottom-up Islamic approach as a clinical modality into reality on a wider scale.15 In this article we will describe one clinical intervention that is carried out from the bottom-up Islamic framework.16 This uses the fundamental idea of the human beings as having different constitutions and how therapeutic interventions are carried out for each of the constitutions of the human being.

For the sake of clarity in presentation, we will categorise the interventions according to the different categories of the soul - qalb (heart), ‘aql (intellect-reason), nafs (behavioural inclinations)3, jasad (physical body) and ruh (spirit).

5 Therapeutic Interventions for Positive Mental and Spiritual Health

The following processes in Islamic therapeutic interventions must be conducted by trained and qualified personnel. One cannot carry out these interventions on one's own. The intention in providing the descriptions is to demonstrate the holistic nature of wellness and healing from a bottom-up approach.

1. Qalb - The Heart

Most of us are more oriented to our minds as we identify with our thoughts, beliefs, and cognitive constructs. While the mind is necessary in counselling or intervention processes, no real transformation can occur if the heart, which is the source of those thoughts, is neglected.

We can spend a great deal of time restructuring their cognition or way of thinking, but if we do not address the heart, which is the emotional source of those thoughts, change will be temporary. The heart, as the centre of the human being, must be given focus during interventions. To orientate the person to his heart is through the exercise of visualisation and breathing. This will bring their conscious awareness to the physical place in the body where the heart is located – in the chest. When a person feels any type of emotion, whether love, fear or anxiety, there is usually a corresponding physical response in the heart.

Most people are familiar with sensations like “butterflies in the stomach” when they are nervous or a sense of qabd (contraction), or constriction at the chest when there is anxiety. These are signs of emotional materials that are located in the qalb (heart) which needs to be accessed during therapy sessions.

From an Islamic point of view, when we have an experience that serves to disconnect us from the love and contentment that comes from an acute awareness of Allah, our heart hardens little by little or black spots are splashed on our heart little by little until it is completely covered. Accessing the location of these black spots in the qalb is required in Islamic clinical interventions.  

Tawbah (repentance) is more integrally related to the heart instead of the confined meaning of seeking forgiveness after indulging in sins. Therefore, tawbah is not like a form of guilt as a result of disobedience but defined from its root meaning of “to turn towards Allah” as the process of turning the heart towards the Divine presence, bringing our inner self into witnessing and accessing His Compassion. It is about recognising our reliance on Allah and recentering our focus on the greater reality of our existence over the distractions from our nafs and this world. So, tawbah is not merely about beating ourselves up over our mistakes, nor is it about dwelling on feelings of guilt. During clinical sessions some time can be spent to reframe and restructure towards a correct relationship to this Islamic principle, especially for those who carry burdens of guilt.

Read: Repentance in Islam

2. ‘Aql - The Intellect-Reason

This is where most conventional therapies access in restructuring thoughts. In addition to what we are familiar with, Islamic Psychology engages in restructuring the cognitions to align with values and bring the mind into the process of healing the soul and integrating worship with Allah. Thus, the goal is to restructure the counselee’s cognitive construct to include trust that Allah has a plan that is better than theirs and that the objective is to submit to that divine plan. This can only be done after we have listened compassionately and validated their feelings and emotions.

Another cognitive strategy that can help reinforce the changing thought patterns is the use of zikr. Using zikr at the level of the qalb is to open the person’s heart to receive Allah’s mercy and bring the remembrance into a deeper internal unconscious place inside the self where the pain of disconnection has left black spots. The use of zikr at the level of the ‘aql is to reorient our conscious thoughts toward the remembrance of Allah.

Read: 8 Ways To Get Closer To Allah s.w.t.

Based on the particular cognition that may be resulting in problematic feelings or behaviours, Islamic clinical interventions can devise an appropriate phrase of zikr either from those prescribed by the Prophet, or something else that is relative to the context. This can be as simple as Allahu Akbar or Astaghfirullah or Subhanallah. Even one of the ninety-nine names of Allah where each name focuses on a specific attribute can be given to clients. The selected name can be repeated by both the counsellor and client, with the presence of the heart during therapy sessions.

This is to counteract the incessant negative thoughts that often become habitual responses to experiences based on cognitive constructs. The mind has a natural tendency to perseverate on things that can often wind up being negative thoughts, as positive ones tend to require more conscious effort. Therefore, an individual must be diligent about consciously inserting positive statements in the mind to counteract the negative.

Read: For a New Beginning: How to Declutter the Mind and Soul

3. Nafs - The Behavioural Inclinations

Muhasabah is the practice of taking account of the self, an inventory of the nafs. While it involves bringing awareness to the whole integrated self (qalb, ‘aql, nafs, ruh), often the focus is on the specific aspect of the lower self as this is the aspect that most needs to be worked on and reformed.

The term nafs is often used to represent the part of the person that most closely resembles the ego in Western psychology. One of the main differences between the concept of the ego and that of the nafs is that in the Islamic paradigm, the nafs is not considered to be bad in and of itself, and can be trained to serve the whole.

The nafs is influenced by the hawa (desire), which is a function of the lower self and its drives and urges that lead us toward indulgence in self-satisfaction. These inclinations are natural, but if allowed to run wild, they will lead us toward an existence that is mired in the external world and separate from a life of taqwa (God-consciousness). But if we put them in check by striving to control our lower urges, then we can rise above the powerful hold they can have on us and thus master our nafs to serve our higher self or soul.

This is the psycho-education stage in Islamic Psychology. Although this cannot be carried out with clients in the introductory stage, it will be good for us to educate them about this aspect of the human being and how we acknowledge their existence in us.

We need to take note that it is important to first establish the notion of self-love as a foundation upon which this practice can be implemented so as to keep it oriented toward constructive growth rather than destructive self-criticism. Another important point to note, refinement of character is not simply an indulgence for those who are not struggling with more severe presenting problems.

Strong reactions to situations that can be a result of triggering past trauma, often show up as maladaptive responses in the form of “negative” character traits, such as anger for example. That anger may very well be justified and have its place to a degree, but when it is not put into balance, it can become destructive and impede a client’s ability to heal from the trauma. Thus, bringing awareness to one’s reactions provides necessary information for where to focus the process of achieving ‘itidal (equilibrium), or coming into balance.

4. Jasad - The Physical Body

Once someone understands their weaknesses and tendencies, it is crucial to take action based on that awareness. Knowledge without action remains merely theoretical and offers little benefit. As human beings, it is essential to engage our physical selves in the journey of self-mastery and recovery. The outer rules of engagement in the Islamic tradition serve as a guide for navigating life’s challenges and distractions.

Physical discipline is vital for aligning the body with the rest of the self, thereby enhancing our abilities for personal development and psychological growth. The Islamic tradition, especially the sunnah of the Prophet, provides numerous tools for resisting the temptations and distractions that easily sway the nafs.

In addition to typical sunnah practices like tahajjud, optional fasting, reading the Quran, and zikr, guiding individuals towards a healthy diet is also part of recovery and therapy. Consuming halal wa tayyib (permissible and wholesome) food strengthens the physical body, enabling it to resist temptations.

Read: Halalan Tayyiban: More Than Just Halal

Maintaining a proper eating schedule helps regulate emotions. As part of clinical intervention, encouraging clients to engage in sports, particularly sunnah sports like archery, swimming, martial arts, and horseback riding, is beneficial. Each of these sports has inherent wisdom and balancing effects for practitioners. Moreover, any physical exercise can have profound balancing effects on the entire person. Individuals can choose activities that align with their personal fitrah or that are more accessible to them to ensure practicality and sustainability.

5. Ruh - The Spirit

People often approach religion more transactionally than transformatively. This stems from being disconnected from the ruh (spirit), the part of the human soul with direct access to the divine.

While gaining knowledge through study is one way to understand the deeper meanings of religious prescriptions—encouraged in the Quran and hadith — there is another form of knowledge that comes directly from God. In the Islamic tradition, this is known as ma‘rifah (knowledge of spiritual truth) and is crucial for psychological well-being as it plays a key role in receiving Allah’s shifa (healing) of the soul.

Read: Spirituality in Islam

Therapists or clinical interventions can help individuals develop practices and attributes that bring balance by knowing oneself and aligning with one’s fitrah, but a true transformation of the heart can only come from Allah. Therapeutic relationships and interventions aim to bring individuals into equilibrium by making them aware of their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, thus opening channels to connect with Allah. This is a unique aspect of the Islamic view of humanity, which includes a mechanism within the self that can directly receive healing and rehabilitation from the primordial source.

Accessing this dimension of the human being is the most challenging part of the therapeutic relationship. It involves helping clients holistically turn inward - qalb, ‘aql, nafs, and ruh - and spiritually connect with Allah through the ruh. This is often done by sitting comfortably, with eyes closed or open, focusing inner awareness on the heart's physical location while maintaining awareness of the entire body.

This form of mindfulness brings awareness to the ‘aql (intellect), though it also has a place in the process as previously described. It is similar to centering the heart when accessing the qalb (heart), but instead of focusing on emotional or stored issues, the aim here is to witness and connect with Allah.

When guiding clients to connect with Allah, they are encouraged to contemplate His creation through visualisation and how these creations reflect His ninety-nine beautiful names. This process, known in Islamic terms as muraqabah (being mindful) or tafakkur (contemplation), aims to heighten awareness of the ruh and connect actions with the intention of drawing closer to Allāh through internal awareness and opening to His reality. The ruh is a vital part of the human being, and repressing or denying it can lead to imbalance and disease.

Read: 5 Ways to Build Good Habits and Break Bad Ones


Mental and spiritual well-being is paramount in Islam. When unhealthy, we are not able to carry out our dual responsibilities of becoming the servant of Allah and His Trustee on this Earth. Therefore, taking care of ourselves holistically is extremely important.

When we are not well, physically, emotionally, mentally or spiritually, we must seek assistance from trained professionals so that we can return to our state of equilibrium and balance. In addition, when we are healthy, we seek to maintain our health by following the guidance of Allah and His Rasul, supplemented by healthcare professionals.

If you need assistance with your mental health issues, do find out more about Club HEAL’s programmes on their website.

Pergas (Singapore Islamic Scholars and Religious Teachers Association) offers the Asatizah Solace Care to provide emotional and spiritual support service. Alternatively, you may also consider the following helplines and online resources:

- Institute of Mental Health’s Mental Health Helpline: 6389-2222 (24 hours)
- Samaritans of Singapore: 1800-221-4444 (24 hours) /1-767 (24 hours)
- Singapore Association for Mental Health: 1800-283-7019
- MindSG 
- https://mindline.sg/ 

If this article is beneficial to you, explore more of our mental health-related articles here



1 Al-Ghazzali, Kitab adab al-akl (translated D. Johnson- Davies ‘On the Manners Relating to Eating’), (UK: The Islamic Text Society), 2004, 1.
2 Osman Bakar, ‘An Introduction to the Philosophy of Islamic Medicine’ in Osman Bakar Tawhid and Science: Islamic Perspectives on Religion and Science (2nd Edition), (Shah Alam: Arah Publication, 2008), 106.
3 Hooman Keshavarzi & Amber Haque, ‘Outlining a psychotherapy model for enhancing Muslim mental health within an Islamic context, International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 23(3), 230-249.
4 Hooman Keshavarzi and Bilal Ali, ‘Foundations of Traditional Islamically Integrated Psychotherapy (TIIP)’ in Hooman Keshavarzi, Bilal Ali Khan & Rania Awaad (eds.), Applying Islamic Principles to Clinical Mental Health Care: Introducing Traditional Islamically Integrated Psychotherapy, (New York & London: Routledge, 2021), 13 Kindle Edition.
5 For an elaboration of these three factors read Rania Awaad, Danah Elsayed, Sara Ali & Aneeqa Abid, ‘Islamic Psychology: A Portrait of its Historical Origins and Contributions’ in Hooman Keshavarzi, Bilal Ali Khan & Rania Awaad (eds.), Applying Islamic Principles to Clinical Mental Health Care: Introducing Traditional Islamically Integrated Psychotherapy, (New York & London: Routledge, 2021)
6 Ahmad ibn Muhammad Miskawayh, Tahdhib al-Akhlaq (translated Constantine K. Zurayk ‘Refinement of Character’), (US: The KAZI Publications Inc, 2002), 1.
7 Dr Abdallah Rothman, An Islamic Model of the Soul for Applications in Psychology, Cambridge Muslim College Papers (No. 9)
8 Al-Ghazali, Kitab ‘Aja’ib al-Qalb (translated: Walter James Skellie ‘The Marvels of the Heart), (Louisville: Fons Vitae, 2010).
9 Malik Badri, Abu Zayd Al-Balkhi’s Sustenance of the Soul: The Cognitive Behavior Therapy of a Ninth Century Physician (London & Washington: The International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2013).
10 Amber Haque & Abdallah Rothman (eds.), Clinical Applications of Islamic Psychology (Washington: International Association of Islamic Psychology, 2023), 4.
11 Paul M. Kaplick, Amin Loucif & Ibrahim Ruschoff ‘Islamic Psychology is Western Continental Europe: A Top-down Approach’, in Amber Haque & Abdallah Rothman (eds.), Islamic Psychology Around the Globe, (Washington: International Association of Islamic Psychology, 2021).
12 Syed Naquib Al-Attas, Prolegomena to the metaphysics of Islam: an exposition of the fundamental elements of the worldview of Islam (2nded.), (Kuala Lumpur: International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilisation, 2001).
13 Abdallah Rothman, Developing A Model of Islamic Psychology and Psychotherapy: Islamic Theology and Contemporary Understandings of Psychology, (New York & London: Routledge, 2022), 107.
14 For example, see Carrie York al-Karam (ed.), Islamically Integrated Psychotherapy: Uniting Faith and Professional Practice, (West Conshohocken: Templeton Press, 2018); Hooman Keshavarzi, Bilal Ali Khan & Rania Awaad (eds.), Applying Islamic Principles to Clinical Mental Health Care: Introducing Traditional Islamically Integrated Psychotherapy, (New York & London: Routledge, 2021), Abdallah Rothman, Developing A Model of Islamic Psychology and Psychotherapy: Islamic Theology and Contemporary Understandings of Psychology, (New York & London: Routledge, 2022).
15 See for example Khalil Center and Cambridge Muslim College accessed on 26 May 2024.
16 Abdallah Rothman, Developing A Model of Islamic Psychology and Psychotherapy: Islamic Theology and Contemporary Understandings of Psychology, (New York & London: Routledge, 2022), 140.

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