How to Pray in Islam: Step-By-Step Guide to Solat for Beginners

Solat is a beautiful act of worship that strengthens the spiritual connection between a servant and our Lord. It is an act of submission to Allah s.w.t, where the believer puts his or her total unconditional faith in Him s.w.t. 
by Muslim.Sg 2024-03-12 • 40 min read
Muslim.Sg is a one-stop online media platform that aims to inspire and empower millennial Muslims with powerful and engaging Islamic religious content.
2024-03-12 • 40 min read

How to Pray in Islam: Step by Step

Solat is a beautiful act of worship that strengthens the spiritual connection between a servant and our Lord. It is an act of submission to Allah s.w.t, where the believer puts his or her total unconditional faith in Him s.w.t. 

In the Quran, Allah s.w.t. says:

إِنَّنِىٓ أَنَا ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّآ أَنَا۠ فَٱعْبُدْنِى وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ لِذِكْرِىٓ

“Verily I am Allah; there is no God except Me, therefore worship Me, and perform prayer to remember Me.”

(Surah Taha, verse 14)

This reminder was given to Prophet Musa a.s. by Allah s.w.t. The purpose of our creation is to know, love and ultimately worship our Lord. Through prayer, we can communicate with and remember our Creator, Allah s.w.t. We disconnect from worldly distractions to devote ourselves to answering the call of our Master. 

Such remembrance can bring tranquillity, solace and comfort to a distressed heart, as it did for Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. during times of difficulty.

Furthermore, solat is not just a physical act of worship but also a spiritual one, allowing the believer to communicate with Allah s.w.t. and be closest to Him. Solat linguistically means dua (praying for goodness), connecting the servant directly with his or her Lord. It is considered the ascension (mi'raj) of the believer, where we can transcend the material world and connect with the divine. 

how to pray in islam for beginners female

Within the framework of fiqh, solat refers to a prescribed set of physical movements and verbal utterances that commence with the takbir and ends with the salam. These specific actions and recitations are integral components of this act of worship and are to be performed with due reverence and concentration.

In this article, we will explore the significance of solat in Islam, its benefits, prerequisites and the way to perform it. Additionally, we will discuss the factors that may break solat and suggest some duas that can be recited after completing the prayer.

The significance of solat

Solat holds immense significance in Islam. Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. emphasised in a hadith that solat is the fundamental pillar on which the entire religion stands:

الصَّلاةُ عِمادُ الدِّينِ

"Solat is the (central) pillar of this religion"

(Shu’ab Al-Iman)

The significance of solat is so paramount that it was directly revealed to Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. during his miraculous Isra' Mi'raj journey. Allah s.w.t. conveyed this crucial legislation to him at Sidratul Muntaha (the lote tree at the furthest reach), a point beyond which even the Angel Jibril could not venture. 

Read: Isra’ & Mi’raj: The Miraculous Night Journey of the Chosen One

how to pray in islam for beginners femaleDome of the Rock in modern-day Jerusalem. Baitul Maqdis is significant in Islam because it was a destination of Prophet Muhammad's journey during the miraculous night journey of Isra and Mi’raj. 

The gift of solat is not without meaning. It is a means of achieving success in this world and the hereafter. The believers who humble themselves in prayer are deemed successful by Allah s.w.t, as mentioned in the Quran:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ. ٱلَّذِينَ هُمْ فِى صَلَاتِهِمْ خَـٰشِعُونَ

"Successful indeed are the believers: those who humble themselves in prayer"

(Surah Al-Mu’minun, 23:1-2)

Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. found solace in prayer during times of distress and sadness. He would first perform wudhu (ablution) and then establish his prayer as a pillar of strength to move forward in life:

أَنَّ الرَّسُولَ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ إِذَا حَزَبَهُ أَمرٌ فَزِعَ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ

"When anything distressed Rasulullah s.a.w, he would turn to prayer (solat)"

(Sunan Abi Daud)

Read: How to Perform Wudhu – A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners

Beyond moments of grief, the Prophet s.a.w. enjoyed performing his prayers as if happiness blossomed in his heart because of solat. In a hadith, it is narrated that Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. said:

وَجُعِلَ قُرَّةُ عَيْنِي فِي الصَّلَاةِ

"And the delight of my eyes is in prayer"

(Sunan An-Nasa’i)

how to pray in islam for beginners female

Therefore, prayer is not just a ritual act but a source of spiritual and emotional nourishment for Muslims. It provides a means of connecting the servant with Allah s.w.t. in seeking His guidance and mercy. As such, it holds immense value in the lives of believers and serves as a constant reminder of our faith and purpose in life.

Read: Prayer: The Symbol of A Servant’s Servitude 

Whether we experience fear, worry, or anxiety due to financial, work-related, or any other concerns, we should seize the opportunity during each prayer to express our hopes and worries to Allah s.w.t, especially during the state of prostration. It is narrated by Imam Muslim in a hadith that the Prophet s.a.w. said:

أَقْرَبُ ما يَكونُ العَبْدُ مِن رَبِّهِ، وهو ساجِدٌ، فأكْثِرُوا الدُّعاءَ

"A servant is nearest to his Lord when he is prostrating (in sujud), so increase your supplications at that moment"

(Sahih Muslim)

Congregational prayers can further enhance this experience by creating a sense of unity among us. 

Read: 5 Benefits of Congregational Prayers in Islam

how to pray in islam for beginners female

Benefits of solat

Solat has numerous benefits for those who establish it regularly. 

1. Solat purifies us from our sins

Firstly, solat purifies us from our sins, as mentioned in a hadith which compares it to the cleansing power of a running river:
 
مَثَلُ الصَّلَوَاتِ الخَمْسِ كَمَثَلِ نَهْرٍ جَارٍ، غَمْرٍ علَى بَابِ أَحَدِكُمْ، يَغْتَسِلُ منه كُلَّ يَومٍ خَمْسَ مَرَّاتٍ

"The likeness of the five (obligatory) solat is like a river running at the door of one of you in which he takes a bath five times a day."

(Sahih Muslim)

2. Solat protects against indecency and wickedness

Allah s.w.t. says in the Quran:

إِنَّ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ تَنْهَىٰ عَنِ ٱلْفَحْشَآءِ وَٱلْمُنكَرِ ۗ وَلَذِكْرُ ٱللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ

"Indeed, (genuine) prayer deters (one) from indecency and wickedness."

(Surah Al-Ankabut 45:51)

3. Solat illuminates the one who observes it

Moreover, the special effects of solat will be seen in the Hereafter. There will be light which is illuminated on a person who observes solat, allowing him or her to stand out amongst humanity when we gather on the day of resurrection.

من حافَظَ عليها كانت لَه نورًا وبُرهانًا ونجاةً إلى يومِ القيامةِ

"Whoever observes it (solat), for him will be light, guidance and salvation for him on the day of resurrection"

(Musnad Ahmad)

4. Solat fortifies mental and spiritual stability

Finally, solat fortifies mental and spiritual stability. Those who regularly perform solat are described in the Quran as being steadfast and able to withstand both good and bad times. Allah s.w.t. says in the Quran: 

إِنَّ ٱلْإِنسَـٰنَ خُلِقَ هَلُوعًا. إِذَا مَسَّهُ ٱلشَّرُّ جَزُوعًا. وَإِذَا مَسَّهُ ٱلْخَيْرُ مَنُوعًا. إِلَّا ٱلْمُصَلِّينَ. ٱلَّذِينَ هُمْ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِهِمْ دَآئِمُونَ

"Verily, humankind was created in a state of anxiety. When evil touches him, he becomes uneasy, and when good touches him, he becomes withholding, except for those who are devoted to prayer, who remain constant in their prayer"

(Surah Al-Ma’arij, 70:19-23)

The verse begins by stating that humans were created in a state of anxiety, which refers to the innate tendency of human beings to be anxious or worried about our existence, future, and other aspects of life. It then describes how humans react to the different situations we face in life. When we encounter evil or hardship, we become uneasy and distressed. When we receive good, we fear it will be taken away from us.

However, the verse also mentions that there are exceptions to this general behaviour, and those are the people who are devoted to prayer. These individuals remain constant in their prayers, seeking Allah's guidance and support in all situations. 

Prayer serves us as a means of connecting with Allah s.w.t. and seeking His help and guidance in all aspects of life, including managing emotions, overcoming anxiety and stress, and dealing with difficult situations.

Pre-requisites of solat

The Syafi'i school of thought in (mazhab) considers the following pre-requisites of solat:

1. Arrival of the time of solat: The time for each prayer is determined by the position of the sun, and it is obligatory to perform the prayer during its designated time.

2. Wudhu (ablution): Muslims are required to perform wudhu before solat. Wudhu involves washing specific parts of the body, including the hands, face, arms, and feet, in a particular manner.

Read: How to Perform Wudhu – A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners

Watch: How to Perform Wudhu For Beginners

3. Ghusl: Ghusl is a full-body cleansing that is mandatory after certain events, such as sexual intercourse, menstruation, and postpartum bleeding. If a person is in a state of major impurity, they must perform ghusl before performing solat.

4. Covering aurat: For men, this means covering the area from the navel to the knees, and for women, this means covering the entire body except for the face and hands.

If a part of the aurat is revealed during prayer and can be covered, continue with the solat and cover it. Do not leave it open when you’ve noticed it. Otherwise, that can break your solat.

5. Ensuring body, clothes, and place of solat are clean: Ensure that the body, clothes, and place of prayer are clean and free from impurities.

6. Facing the qiblah: Muslims must face the kaabah in Makkah while performing solat

How to perform solat

The steps of solat involve submitting your entire self to Allah s.w.t. through verbal utterances (qauli), physical movements (fi’li), and a focused mind and heart (qalbiy). 

According to mazhab Syafi'i, here is the step-by-step guide to performing solat:

1. Establish intention

Just like all other acts of worship, performing our solat begins with establishing the intention (niyyah) in our hearts. This is essentially specifying the type of solat we intend to perform. 

While verbally uttering our intention is sunnah and not wajib (obligatory), it helps to reaffirm our intention and focus on our solat.

For example, if you’re intending to pray subuh prayer individually, you can utter:

أُصَلِّي فَرضَ صَلَاةَ الصُّبحِ رَكعَتَينِ لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى

I intend to pray the obligatory subuh prayer in two raka’at for Allah ta’ala

When praying in congregation, we need to specify our intention as either the imam (person who leads the congregational prayer) or ma'mum (follower or congregant).

For the Imam:

أُصَلِّي فَرضَ صَلَاةَ الصُّبحِ رَكعَتَينِ إِمَامًا لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى

I intend to pray the obligatory subuh prayer two raka’at as Imam for Allah ta’ala

For the Ma’mum:

أُصَلِّي فَرضَ صَلَاةَ الصُّبحِ رَكعَتَينِ مَأْمُومًا لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى

I intend to pray the obligatory subuh prayer two raka’at as Ma’mum for Allah ta’ala

During solat, it is essential to be present (hudhur) in mind and heart. This means being conscious of our movements and what we say in prayer. Although distractions may occur, we should strive to be fully present in our prayers.

Preparing for a mindful solat actually begins with taking wudhu, where we cleanse each part of our body mindfully to submit ourselves in prayer.

2. Takbiratul Ihram

how to pray in islam for beginners female takbiratul ihram

Takbiratul Ihram is the initial act of entering the state of prayer. This is achieved by raising both hands with thumbs aligned to the level of earlobes and palms parallel to the level of shoulders.

With the intention of starting the prayer, say the takbir "Allahu Akbar". It's crucial to say the takbir loud enough for you to hear your own voice, even if it's just a whisper. 

It's worth noting that a takbir mentioned only in the heart without verbally uttering it does not fulfil this requirement.

3. Stand if you can

For fardhu (obligatory) prayers, standing is an integral (rukun) part of solat. During the standing position, place your right hand over your left, with your hands anywhere below the chest and above your navel area.

how to pray in islam for beginners female

While it is important to follow these guidelines, know that Allah s.w.t. is Most Compassionate and Most Merciful. If someone is unable to stand due to legitimate reasons such as sickness or injury, they are allowed to sit instead. This is why we may see some older individuals in the mosque sitting on chairs as they join the congregational prayers.

Let’s continue striving to do what we can to fulfil our religious obligations while also being mindful of our physical limitations.

While standing, and just after the takbir, it is sunnah to recite Dua Iftitah (opening dua) quietly.

اللهُ أَكْبَرُ كَبِيرًا وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ كَثِيْرًا وَسُبْحَانَ اللهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيْلًا .وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِيْ فَطَرَالسَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ حَنِيْفًا مُسْلِمًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِيْنَ . إِنَّ صَلَاتِيْ وَنُسُكِيْ وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِيْ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ لاَ شَرِيْكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِيْنَ

Allāhu Akbar Kabirā,
Walhamdulillāhi Kathīrā
Wa Subhānallāhi Bukratan Wa aṣīlā
Wajjahtu Wajhiya lillazi Fatras-Samāwāti wal-Ardh
Hanīfan Musliman Wa-mā ana minal-musyrikīn
Inna ṣalātī, wa-nusukī wa-mahyaya, wamamātī Lillāhi Rabbil-'ālamīn
Lā syarīka laHu wa bizālika umirtu wa ana minal muslimīn

______

Allah the Almighty, the Greatest
All praises be upon Him
Allah The Most Exalted, day and night
I stand before The One Who created the skies and the lands
I sincerely submit to Allah and I am certainly not among those who associate Allah with other beings
Indeed my Solat, my good deeds, my life and my death are all for Allah The Lord of all the worlds
He has no partner nor parallel whatsoever, and I have been ordered as such, and I am from those who embrace Islam (submits)

______

Note: Dua iftitah is only recited in the first raka’at of prayer. 

4. Recite Surah Al-Fatihah

Before reciting Surah Al-Fatihah, it is sunnah to recite the ta’awwuz quietly: 

أَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

A’uzubillahi Minasshaitonir Rojim

I seek refuge in Allah from the accursed Syaitan.

Thereafter, recite Surah Al-Fatihah. Do note that reciting Surah Al-Fatihah in the heart without actually uttering it verbally does not count. Just like the takbir, you have to verbally recite it even if it's a whisper.

بِسمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحيمِ. الحَمدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ العالَمينَ
الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحيمِ. مالِكِ يَومِ الدّينِ
إِيّاكَ نَعبُدُ وَإِيّاكَ نَستَعينُ
اهدِنَا الصِّراطَ المُستَقيمَ
صِراطَ الَّذِينَ أَنعَمتَ عَلَيهِم غَيرِ المَغضُوبِ عَلَيهِم وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

______

Bismillāhir-Raḥmānir-Raḥīm.
Alḥamdulillāhi Rabbil-ʿālamīn.
Ar-Raḥmānir-Raḥīm.
Māliki yawmid-dīn.
iyyāKa naʿbudu wa-iyyāKa nastaʿīn.
Ihdināṣ-ṣirāṭal-mustaqīm.
ṣirāṭallazīna anʿamta ʿalayhim ghayril-maghḍūbi ʿalayhim wa-lāḍḍāllīn

  ______

In the name of God The Most Compassionate and Merciful.
Praise be to Allah, Lord of all the worlds.
The Compassionate, The Merciful. Ruler on the Day of Reckoning.
You alone do we worship, and You alone do we ask for help.
Guide us along the straight path,
the path of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace,
not those You are displeased with, or those who are astray.

Amiin.

______

It is sunnah to recite aloud in the following prayer: Subuh and friday prayers, the first two raka’at of Maghrib and Isyak, the two sunnah eid prayers (solat sunnah aidilfitri and aidiladha), istisqa’ prayer (solat to seek for rain), khusuf prayer (moon eclipse), terawih prayers and witr prayer in Ramadan.

Read: Surah Al-Fatihah: Meaning and Benefits

Women can also recite aloud when non-muhrim men (men who are not related to her by blood or marriage and with whom she is not permitted to have physical contact or intimacy) are not around.

Since Surah Al-Fatihah is an integral part of the solat, learning how to recite it is essential. However, if you are still learning, do not worry and recite it to the best of your ability. You may even take a piece of paper with you to help with your recitation during prayer. In congregational prayer, it is recommended to choose an imam who can recite better.

Watch: How to Learn Quran For Beginners

After reciting Surah Al-Fatihah, it is recommended to recite any memorised surah of your choice as an additional sunnah. For example, after reciting Surah Al-Fatihah, you may recite Surah Al-Ikhlas or Ayatul Kursi

For the second raka’at, it is recommended to choose a surah that does not come before the first surah in the order of the Quran. For instance, you can recite Surah Al-'Asr in the first raka’at and Surah Al-Ikhlas in the second, as the latter follows the former in the order of the Quran.

Note: It is sunnah to only recite another surah after reciting Surah Al-Fatihah in the first two raka'at of solat.

5. Perform ruku’

During the transition to the ruku’ position, raise your hands and say the takbirAllahu Akbar”. This transition is called the takbiratul intiqal which means the takbir of transitioning from one movement to another.

Lower your hands gently to your knees as you move towards the ruku’ position. 

how to pray in islam for beginners female ruku

Recite the dua ruku’ three times: 

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ العَظِيمِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ

Subhana robbiyal 'azeem wa bihamdihi

Glory be to my Lord Almighty, and praise be to Him

After the dua, take a very brief pause (tuma’ninah) such that your movements are not hurried before moving on to the next step. This pause should be applied in all other steps as well.

6. I’tidal 

Return to the standing position by raising your hands while reciting:

 سَمِعَ اللهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ

Sami’-Allahu liman hamidah

Allah hears those who praise Him

how to pray in islam for beginners female

Lower your hands gently and place them on your sides. When you are in a completely upright position, recite the following:

رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ

Rabbana walaKal-hamd

O Our Lord, to You are all the praises

7. Sujud

Say the takbir and prostrate (sujud). Land your knee first and then your hands, followed by your forehead. Ensure that your forehead is clear. Your songkok, tudung or hair should not cover any part of your forehead. 

how to pray in islam for beginners female

In the sujud position, recite three times:

 سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الأَعْلَى وَبِحَمدِهِ

Subhana robbiyal a’laa wa bihamdihi

Glory be to my Lord the Most High

8. Sit in between two sujud (julus)

After the sujud, move on to the julus (sitting) position whilst saying ‘Allahu Akbar’. It is sunnah to sit in the iftirash position, resting on your left foot and leaning on your erected right leg. All your right toes should face the qiblah.

How to pray Islam step by step julus sit in solat

Your hands are resting on your lap, touching the upper part of your knees.

This position, however, can be challenging to some, such as those who might have an injury. In that situation, sitting in an upright position you're comfortable with is okay.

Once you have settled down in the right position, read the dua:

رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي، وَارْحَمْنِي، وَاجْبُرْنِي، وَارْفَعْنِي، وَارْزُقْنِي، وَاهْدِنِي، وَعَافِنِي، وَاعْفُ عَنِّي

Robbighfirli warhamni wajburni warfa’ni warzuqni wahdini wa ‘aafini wa’fu ‘anni

O my Lord, forgive me; have mercy on me, strengthen me, raise my rank, sustain me, guide me, grant me wellbeing and pardon me.


9. Sujud again

Return to the sujud position again while saying ‘Allahu Akbar’.

How to pray Islam step by step sujud

While prostrating, recite three times:

 سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الأَعْلَى وَبِحَمدِهِ

Subhana robbiyal a’laa wa bihamdihi

Glory be to my Lord the Most High

Alhamdulillah, you have now completed one raka’at of solat upon fulfilling the second sujud.

Start the next raka’at without hurrying. Return to the standing position to start the next raka’at. To complete the next raka’at, follow steps 3 to 9. 

If you are in the second raka’at, move to the sitting position after the second sujud and perform the tasyahhud awwal

اَلتَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلهِ
اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيَّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ
السَّلاَمُ عَلَينَا وَعَلَى عِبَاِد اللهِ الصَّالِحِينَ
أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللهِ
اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى سَيِدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وعلى آل سيدنا محمد

Attahiyyatul-mubaarakaatus solawatut toyyibaatu lillah
Assalamualaika ayyuhan nabiyyu warahmatullahi wabarakaatuhu
Assalamualaina wa ‘alaa ‘ibadillahis-solihiin
Ashadu an la ilaha illAllah, wa ashadu anna muhammadar rasulullah
Allahumma solli ‘ala sayyidina muhammad wa ali sayyidina muhammad

Blessed salutations, prayers, good deeds to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, as well as Allah’s mercy and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous servants of God. I bear witness that there is no deity but God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His messenger.
O Allah send your selawat upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad

After that, get up without haste. It is sunnah to raise your hands as you transition into the third raka’at after performing the tasyahhud awwal.

10. Sit in the last tahiyyat position

In the last raka’at, sit in the tawarruk position. This position is also known as tahiyyat akhir - where you sit on your hip (particularly your left backside). Your right foot is erected, and your left leg is placed underneath your right leg.

How to pray Islam step by step tahiyyat akhir

Once you have established the sitting position, recite the dua tasyahhud akhir:

اَلتَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلهِ
 اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيَّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ
 السَّلاَمُ عَلَينَا وَعَلَى عِبَاِد اللهِ الصَّالِحِينَ
أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللهِ

Attahiyyatul mubaarakaatus solawatut toyyibaatu lillah
Assalamualaika ayyuhan-nabiyyu warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
Assalamu’alaina wa ‘ala ‘ibadillahis-solihiin
Ashhadu an la ilaha illAllah wa ashhadu anna muhammadar-rasulullah

Blessed salutations, prayers, good deeds to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, as well as Allah’s mercy and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous servants of God. I bear witness that there is no deity but God and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His messenger.

When you reach “Ashhadu an la ilaha illAllah”, raise your right index finger while clasping the other fingers of your right, emphasising “..illAllah” (but God).  

How to pray Islam step by step index finger
11. Selawat upon Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.

Continue with Selawat Ibrahimiyyah

اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ
كَمَا صَلَيتَ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ
وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ
وَبَارِكَ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ
كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ
وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ
فِي العَالَمِينَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ

Allahumma solli ‘ala sayyidina muhammad wa ‘ala ali sayyidina muhammad
Kama sollaita ‘ala sayyidina ibrahim
Wa ‘ala sayyidina ibrahim
Wabarik ‘ala sayyidina muhammad wa ‘ala ali sayyidina muhammad
Kama barakta ‘ala sayyidina ibrahim
Wa ‘ala sayyidina ibrahim
Fil ‘alamina innaka hamidun-majiid

O Allah, let Your mercy come upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, 
as you let it come upon Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim.
O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad,
As You blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. 
For verily, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious.

12. Give Salam

You then complete the solat by turning your head first over your right shoulder, saying: 

السَّلَامُ عَلَيكُم وَرَحمَةُ اللهِ

Assalamualaikum warahmatullah

Peace and blessings upon you

Then, repeat these words while turning your head over your left shoulder. 

How to pray Islam step by step

13. Tertib 

Tertib in solat refers to following the correct sequence and performing the mentioned steps of the prayer in the correct order.

If any of these positions or movements are performed out of order, the prayer may become invalid, and we would need to start the prayer again from the beginning. 

Therefore, it is important to learn and follow the proper tertib in solat. 

How many raka’at are there in a single solat?

There are five daily fardhu prayers, each with its own number of raka’at:

Subuh    | 2 raka’at
Zohor     | 4 raka’at
Asar       | 4 raka’at
Maghrib | 3 raka’at
Isyak      | 4 raka’at

If you are praying the two raka’at of the Subuh prayer, please follow steps 1 to 9 in the first raka’at, followed by steps 3 to 12 on the second raka’at.

If you are praying Zohor, Asar or Isyak, do steps 1 to 9 in the first raka’at, followed by steps 3 to 9 in the second raka’at. Remember to perform the first tasyahhud upon completing the second raka’at. Afterwards, perform steps 3 to 9 again for the third raka’at. Follow the same steps for the fourth raka’at and complete it to step 12. 

If you are praying the three raka’at of Maghrib, perform steps 1 to 9 for the first raka’at. Then repeat steps 3 to 9, followed by the first tasyahhud upon completion of the second raka’at. Complete the third raka’at by performing steps 3 to 12.

Are there any differences between men and women in the movements of solat?

There are no major differences in the movements of solat between men and women, except for two slight differences, according to the Syafi’i mazhab. The differences are seen in two positions:[1]

1. During ruku’, men are to widen their arms as they stretch out to hold their knees, while women are advised to tighten their arms and bring them slightly closer together.

2. During sujud, men should widen their arms and leave a slightly bigger gap between their hips and stomach. In contrast, women are to keep their arms slightly closer together and keep their hips and stomach close.

What breaks/invalidates the solat?

1. Talking, laughing or making any unrelated verbal utterances intentionally

2. Eating or drinking

3. Performing any unrelated movements, such as walking around or gesturing, for three consecutive movements. These are major movements of your limbs and not minor movements such as our fingers or eyelids. 

It's worth noting that movements beyond our control, such as sneezing or shivering, do not break the prayer, according to the Syafi'i school.

If a person forgets the raka’at he or she is in, would it invalidate the solat?

The answer is no. However, he would need to choose the number of raka’at he is confident (yaqeen) with - usually being the lesser raka’at. Towards the end of the solat and just before giving the salam, he should perform sujud sahwi.

Sujud sahwi is performed to compensate for an omission or mistake in their prayer. According to the Syafi'i school of thought, it is also sunnah for a person to perform sujud sahwi if he or she forgets or has doubts about fulfilling steps in prayer such as: 

1. The first tasyahhud

2. Dua qunut (subuh prayer)

3. Reciting selawat for the family of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.

When you reach the last raka’at and complete step 11 (Selawat Ibrahimiyyah), do not give the salam first. Instead, make a prostration while reciting the dua three times:

سُبْحَانَ مَنْ لَا يَنَامُ وَلَا يَسْهُو

Subhaana man la yanaam wa la yas-hu

Glory be to the One Who does not forget or sleep

After the sujud (prostration), move on to the julus (sitting) position. 

How to pray Islam step by step julus sit in solat

Perform another sujud while reciting the dua three times. 

Return to the julus position and end the prayer by saying salam to the right and left without reciting any other dua.

If you’re following an imam in solat, you need to do sujud sahwi when the imam performs the prostration.

What are some duas we can read after solat?

After you finish your solat and take a moment to reflect, you have a unique opportunity to connect with Allah s.w.t. and seek His blessings. This brief time is a precious moment for you to pour out your heart to Him through heartfelt duas. 

Remember, it doesn't have to be something you memorise - it can be something earnest from the depths of your heart. So take a deep breath, close your eyes, pour out your genuine emotions and know that Allah s.w.t. hears and responds to every sincere dua.

If you need some inspiration, here are some duas you can read:

1. Dua for peace

اللَّهمَّ أنتَ السَّلامُ ومنكَ السَّلامُ، تَباركتَ يا ذا الجلالِ والإكرامِ

Allahumma anta as-salamu wa minka as-salam, tabarakta ya dha al-jalali wal-ikram.

O Allah, You are The Peace (As-Salam) and from You is peace. Blessed are You, The Majestic and Noble.

(Sahih Muslim)

2. Dua to develop our 'ibadah

اللَّهمَّ أعنِّي على ذِكْرِكَ، وشُكْرِكَ، وحُسنِ عبادتِكَ

Allahumma a'inni 'ala thikrika, wa shukrika, wa husni 'ibadatika

O Allah, help me in remembering You, expressing gratitude towards You and worshipping You in the best manner

(Sunan Abi Daud)

3. Ayatul-kursi

ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلْحَىُّ ٱلْقَيُّومُ ۚ لَا تَأْخُذُهُۥ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ۚ لَّهُۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۗ مَن ذَا ٱلَّذِى يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُۥٓ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِۦ ۚ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَىْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِۦٓ إِلَّا بِمَا شَآءَ ۚ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ ۖ وَلَا يَـُٔودُهُۥ حِفْظُهُمَا ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلْعَلِىُّ ٱلْعَظِيمُ

Allahu laa ilaaha illa Huwa, Al-Hayyul-Qayyum. Laa ta'khudhuhu sinatun wa laa nawm, lahu maa fis-samawaati wa maafil-ard. Man zal-lazee yashfa'u 'indahu illa bi-iznihi. Ya'lamu maa bayna aydeehim wa maa khalfahum, wa laa yuheetoona bishay'im-min 'ilmihi illa bimaa shaa'a. Wasi'a kursiyyuhus-samawaati wal-ard, wa laa ya'uduhu hifzuhuma, wa Huwal-'Aliyyul- 'Azeem.

Allah! There is no god (worthy of worship) except Him, the Ever-Living, All-Sustaining. Neither drowsiness nor sleep overtakes Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who could possibly intercede with Him without His permission? He (fully) knows what is ahead of them and what is behind them, but no one can grasp any of His knowledge—except what He wills (to reveal). His Seat encompasses the heavens and the earth, and the preservation of both does not tire Him. For He is the Most High, the Greatest.

(Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:255)

Read: Duas After Prayer in English with transliteration

Final takeaways

Solat is a beautiful act of worship that connects us with Allah s.w.t. It is a way to express our love and submission to the Almighty, and a means of reinforcing our spiritual connection with Him.

In solat, we stand before Allah s.w.t. with all our brokenness, seeking His mercy and forgiveness. We bow down before Him, acknowledging our weaknesses and our need for His guidance. We prostrate before Him, humbling ourselves before His greatness and seeking His blessings.

Through solat, we are reminded of our purpose in life and our ultimate destination. We are reminded of the importance of gratitude, patience, and perseverance in our daily lives.

Allah is always there for us to turn to Him with sincerity and humility. He is the Most Merciful and Forgiving, and He loves to hear His servants call upon Him. Be assured that Allah s.w.t. promises every attempt to establish solat will not be in vain. In fact, He promises to provide for us as we fulfil it:

وَأْمُرْ أَهْلَكَ بِٱلصَّلَوٰةِ وَٱصْطَبِرْ عَلَيْهَا ۖ لَا نَسْـَٔلُكَ رِزْقًا ۖ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكَ ۗ وَٱلْعَـٰقِبَةُ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ

Bid your people to pray, and be diligent in (observing) it. We do not ask you to provide. It is We Who provide for you. And the ultimate outcome is (only) for (the people of) righteousness.

(Surah Taha, 20:132)

May Allah guide us all to perform solat with sincerity and devotion, and may He accept our prayers and reward us in this life and the hereafter.

 


References:

[1] Shams-din Muhammad al-Khatib al-Sharbini, al-Iqna’ fi halli alfaz abi shuja’, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon

 

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